Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is associated with low neural morbidity compared with surgery. Surgery commonly causes debilitating long-term pain. Complications of RFA are rare bit can be severe. To prevent neurological complications it is important for the interventional radiologist to be aware of the anatomy of nervous structures and to attempt to identify nerves on CT scans during the RFA procedure. Creating a pneumothorax can be useful to avoid nerve damage and related clinical complications. Both RFA and MWA ablation prolonged local tumor control with minimal morbidity in this study group of recurrent NSCLC after radiotherapy. Efficacy of RFA in the mid-term seems to settle at a promising level, with better results for metastatic lesions and, above all, for lesions smaller than 3 cm.
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